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Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. [210] Therefore, these Orthodox Christians mark December 25 (and thus Christmas) on the same day that is internationally considered to be December 25, and which is also the date of Christmas among Western Christians. [3][62], In the 17th century, Isaac Newton, who, coincidentally, was born on December 25, argued that the date of Christmas may have been selected to correspond with the solstice. [19], Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. [190] In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Christmas "Sequence" or "Prose" was introduced in North European monasteries, developing under Bernard of Clairvaux into a sequence of rhymed stanzas. [166] In countries where a representation of the Nativity scene is very popular, people are encouraged to compete and create the most original or realistic ones. [239] In December 2018, officials raided Christian churches just prior to Christmastide and coerced them to close; Christmas trees and Santa Clauses were also forcibly removed.[240][241]. The video chronicles the adventures of a man (played by Andy Samberg) stumbling his way through New York City.[33]. These stamps are regular postage stamps, unlike Christmas seals, and are valid for postage year-round. They were popularised by Saint Francis of Assisi from 1223, quickly spreading across Europe. Greek children get their presents from Saint Basil on New Year's Eve, the eve of that saint's liturgical feast. [81], In 1743, German Protestant Paul Ernst Jablonski argued Christmas was placed on December 25 to correspond with the Roman solar holiday Dies Natalis Solis Invicti and was therefore a "paganization" that debased the true church. New York had originally been established as the Dutch colonial town of New Amsterdam and the Dutch Sinterklaas tradition was reinvented as Saint Nicholas.[205]. The song garnered Parton an Academy Award nomination and four Grammy Award nominations, winning her the awards for Best Country Song and Best Country Vocal Performance, Female. [90] "Misrule"—drunkenness, promiscuity, gambling—was also an important aspect of the festival. An increasing number of seasonal holiday songs were commercially produced in the 20th century, including jazz and blues variations. Countries such as Japan, where Christmas is popular despite there being only a small number of Christians, have adopted many of the secular aspect… [23][59] Another scholar writes that "the cult of the Sun in pagan Rome ironically did not celebrate the winter solstice nor any of the other quarter-tense days, as one might expect". This conclusion was based on solar symbolism, with March 25 the date of the equinox. [38] "Noel" (or "Nowel") entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself ultimately from the Latin nātālis (diēs) meaning "birth (day)".[39]. [163][164][165] The first commercially produced decorations appeared in Germany in the 1860s, inspired by paper chains made by children. [217] Industries completely dependent on Christmas include Christmas cards, of which 1.9 billion are sent in the United States each year, and live Christmas Trees, of which 20.8 million were cut in the U.S. in 2002. [156] Different types of decorations developed across the Christian world, dependent on local tradition and available resources, and can vary from simple representations of the crib to far more elaborate sets – renowned manger scene traditions include the colourful Kraków szopka in Poland,[157] which imitate Kraków's historical buildings as settings, the elaborate Italian presepi (Neapolitan, Genoese and Bolognese),[158][159][160][161] or the Provençal crèches in southern France, using hand-painted terracotta figurines called santons. The song was released as a single in November 1980. This is a list of best-selling singles in the world.The Guinness World Records named the holiday single "White Christmas" (1942) by Bing Crosby as the best-selling single worldwide. Christmas 9 to 5 (TV Movie 2019) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. In their stockings children might get an apple, orange, and sweets. [49], Following the Protestant Reformation, many of the new denominations, including the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church, continued to celebrate Christmas. National Christmas Tree Lighting Monday, December 5, 7/6c. [54][55] This holiday was not primarily about the nativity, but rather the baptism of Jesus. The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular themes and origins. Lauren leaves everything behind in Boston to embark on a new chapter in her life and career. [56] Christmas was promoted in the East as part of the revival of Orthodox Christianity that followed the death of the pro-Arian Emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. All the major events of Christ's life, especially the passion, were celebrated on this date. [140] In 1875, Louis Prang introduced the Christmas card to Americans. The feast regained prominence after 800 when Charlemagne was crowned emperor on Christmas Day. In England and Wales, the Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 prevents all large shops from trading on Christmas Day. One translation reads: "O the splendid and divine providence of the Lord, that on that day, the very day, on which the sun was made, March 28, a Wednesday, Christ should be born. Special desserts are also prepared, such as Christmas pudding, mince pies, Christmas cake, Panettone and Yule log cake. He arose and spent eight days in fasting and in prayer. The calculation hypothesis suggests that an earlier holiday held on March 25 became associated with the Incarnation. Latin hymns such as "Veni redemptor gentium", written by Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, were austere statements of the theological doctrine of the Incarnation in opposition to Arianism. For a time, the song became something of an anthem for office workers in the US, and in 2004, Parton's song ranked at number 78 on the American Film Institute's '100 Years, 100 Songs'. In the 12th century the Parisian monk Adam of St. Victor began to derive music from popular songs, introducing something closer to the traditional Christmas carol. How All the Welkin Rings", later renamed "Hark! The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. The Christmas tree was rare. 9 to 5 began showing previews in Los Angeles on September 9, 2008, and played on Broadway at the Marquis Theatre from April until September 2009 before touring. [31] The term derives from Middle English Cristenmasse, meaning "Christian mass". Christmas Day is celebrated as a major festival and public holiday in countries around the world, including many whose populations are mostly non-Christian. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. The calculation hypothesis is considered academically to be "a thoroughly viable hypothesis", though not certain. After Finn's father passed away, it was time to settle his estate and go through his will. ", 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2227990, "Carp for Christmas: the odd Central European tradition explained", "Saint Nicholas, Sinterklaas, Santa Claus", "Kto przynosi Wam prezenty? [192] American Christmas songs include religious carols and hymns, as well as secular songs featuring goodwill, Santa Claus, and gift-giving. Amoral teen Telly (Leo Fitzpatrick) has made it his goal to sleep with as many virgin girls as possible -- but he doesn't tell them that he's HIV positive. This page was last edited on 4 February 2021, at 08:17. [218] For 2019, the average US adult was projected to spend $920 on gifts alone. [citation needed]. A 2010 survey by LifeWay Christian Resources found that six in ten Americans attend church services during this time. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and later returns to Nazareth.[41]. [214][215] In the United States, it has been calculated that a quarter of all personal spending takes place during the Christmas/holiday shopping season. Season 9 (2012): Dwight Christmas. Film studios release many high-budget movies during the holiday season, including Christmas films, fantasy movies or high-tone dramas with high production values to hopes of maximizing the chance of nominations for the Academy Awards. An anonymous work known as De Pascha Computus (243) linked the idea that creation began at the spring equinox, on March 25, with the conception or birth (the word nascor can mean either) of Jesus on March 28, the day of the creation of the sun in the Genesis account. [74] The date of the passion was moved to Good Friday in 165 when Pope Soter created Easter by reassigning the Resurrection to a Sunday. Following the American Revolutionary War, some of the inhabitants of New York City sought out symbols of the city's non-English past. In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. "[42][43] The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. As a result, December 25 on the Julian calendar currently corresponds to January 7 on the calendar used by most governments and people in everyday life. [212][213] In Canada, merchants begin advertising campaigns just before Halloween (October 31), and step up their marketing following Remembrance Day on November 11. [192], A special Christmas family meal is traditionally an important part of the holiday's celebration, and the food that is served varies greatly from country to country. It opened on Broadway at the Marquis Theatre … It's beginning to look a lot like Christmas as ABC's tree-mendously popular decorating competition series, "The Great Christmas Light Fight," takes over Wednesdays in December as it returns for its eighth season with back-to-back episodes starting WEDNESDAY DEC 9 at 8/7c, for three consecutive weeks. The complete 1984 studio album "Christmas" by Mannheim Steamroller.Tracklist:1. The feast was introduced in Constantinople in 379, in Antioch by John Chrysostom towards the end of the fourth century,[55] probably in 388, and in Alexandria in the following century. [102] Following the Parliamentarian victory over Charles I during the English Civil War, England's Puritan rulers banned Christmas in 1647. [66], Gemara 8a.7: With regard to the dates of these festivals, the Sages taught: When Adam the first man saw that the day was progressively diminishing, as the days become shorter from the autumnul equinox until the winter solstice, he did not yet know that this is a normal phenomenon, and therefore he said: Woe is me; perhaps because I sinned the world is becoming dark around me and will ultimately return to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. [citation needed], A further complication is added by the fact that the Armenian Apostolic Church continues the original ancient Eastern Christian practice of celebrating the birth of Christ not as a separate holiday, but on the same day as the celebration of his baptism (Theophany), which is on January 6. Current tradition in several Latin American countries (such as Venezuela and Colombia) holds that while Santa makes the toys, he then gives them to the Baby Jesus, who is the one who actually delivers them to the children's homes, a reconciliation between traditional religious beliefs and the iconography of Santa Claus imported from the United States. [215], In most Western nations, Christmas Day is the least active day of the year for business and commerce; almost all retail, commercial and institutional businesses are closed, and almost all industries cease activity (more than any other day of the year), whether laws require such or not. [70][71] In modern times, March 25 is celebrated as Annunciation. [126] A prominent phrase from the tale, "Merry Christmas", was popularized following the appearance of the story. Post was still delivered on Christmas Day until 1961. Senator Elizabeth Warren frequently used the song at campaign appearances during her 2020 presidential campaign, with it often playing when she took the stage. In South Tyrol (Italy), Austria, Czech Republic, Southern Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Slovakia, and Switzerland, the Christkind (Ježíšek in Czech, Jézuska in Hungarian and Ježiško in Slovak) brings the presents. In the UK and Ireland, the Christmas shopping season starts from mid-November, around the time when high street Christmas lights are turned on. ", "A Russian Christmas—Better Late Than Never : Soviet Union: Orthodox Church celebration is the first under Communists. Welcome to Wikimedia. (federal) = federal holidays, (abbreviation) = state/territorial holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (cultural) = holiday related to a specific racial/ethnic group or sexual minority, (week) = week-long holidays, (month) = month-long holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies [195], Christmas cards are illustrated messages of greeting exchanged between friends and family members during the weeks preceding Christmas Day. [90] Around the 12th century, these traditions transferred again to the Twelve Days of Christmas (December 25 – January 5); a time that appears in the liturgical calendars as Christmastide or Twelve Holy Days.[90]. In the United Kingdom and countries influenced by its traditions, a standard Christmas meal includes turkey, goose or other large bird, gravy, potatoes, vegetables, sometimes bread and cider. On an unforeseen detour to the town of Grandon Falls, she discovers love and family, helping her to embrace the magic of Christmas. Directed by Jill Carter. [120] [90] The Yule boar was a common feature of medieval Christmas feasts. A few months before Parton's song and the film, Scottish singer Sheena Easton released a single called "9 to 5" in the UK. While Parton's song is about a working woman, Easton's song is about a woman waiting at home for her lover to return from work. In the initial scenes, the title character (played by Ryan Reynolds) goes through a montage of mercenary missions with the song playing in the background. When giving a key speech on the subject, she quotes from the song as poetry, ending with "I swear sometimes that man is out to get me". [101] Christmas gift-giving during the Middle Ages was usually between people with legal relationships, such as tenant and landlord. Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Lord...? Nicholas was a 4th-century Greek bishop of Myra, a city in the Roman province of Lycia, whose ruins are 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from modern Demre in southwest Turkey. Deck the Halls (0:00)2. 27 Christmas 9 to 5 (2019) Courtesy of Marvista Entertainment Lifetime. This holiday was created in the seventh century and was assigned to a date that is nine months before Christmas, in addition to being the traditional date of the equinox. [112] The Parliament of Scotland officially abolished the observance of Christmas in 1640, claiming that the church had been "purged of all superstitious observation of days". [48] It was restored as a legal holiday in 1660, but remained disreputable. The Moravians in Bethlehem had the first Christmas trees in America as well as the first Nativity Scenes. "Although this view is still very common, it has been seriously challenged" – Church of England Liturgical Commission, McGreevy, Patrick. Learn about the history of Christmas, Santa Claus, and holiday traditions worldwide. The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. [75] It was a traditional Jewish belief that great men were born and died on the same day, so lived a whole number of years, without fractions: Jesus was therefore considered to have been conceived on March 25, as he died on March 25, which was calculated to have coincided with 14 Nisan. "The old puritan feeling prevents it from being a cheerful, hearty holiday; though every year makes it more so. Kalenda is celebrated during the eight days after the winter solstice, and Saturnalia is celebrated during the eight days before the winter solstice. [94] The ban by the Puritans was revoked in 1681 by English governor Edmund Andros, however it was not until the mid-19th century that celebrating Christmas became fashionable in the Boston region.[118]. Christmas Day (inclusive of its vigil, Christmas Eve), is a Festival in the Lutheran Churches, a holy day of obligation in the Roman Catholic Church, and a Principal Feast of the Anglican Communion. Boxing Day, the day after Christmas, was added in 1871. In the Early Middle Ages, Christmas Day was overshadowed by Epiphany, which in western Christianity focused on the visit of the magi. With Tiya Sircar, Lara Jean Chorostecki, Sheila McCarthy, George Wendt. [citation needed], Some prefer cards with a poem, prayer, or Biblical verse; while others distance themselves from religion with an all-inclusive "Season's greetings".[197]. Moore's poem transferred the genuine old Dutch traditions celebrated at New Year in New York, including the exchange of gifts, family feasting, and tales of "sinterklass" (a derivation in Dutch from "Saint Nicholas", from whence comes the modern "Santa Claus") to Christmas. Revised Julian calendar usage started in the early 20th century. Rolls of brightly colored paper with secular or religious Christmas motifs are manufactured for the purpose of wrapping gifts. Similar legislation was approved in Scotland with the Christmas Day and New Year's Day Trading (Scotland) Act 2007. [69] Christmas was then calculated as nine months later. 98.3 WTRY and 103.9 The Breeze (WPBZ-FM), which both serve Albany and the Capital District, similarly switched to 24/7 holiday music on November 1. ", "Nie tylko Mikołaj, czyli kto według tradycji rozdaje prezenty w różnych regionach Polski? St. Nikolaus wears a bishop's dress and still brings small gifts (usually candies, nuts, and fruits) on December 6 and is accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht. [2][10][11] A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. [5], The song peaked at No. [101] The annual indulgence in eating, dancing, singing, sporting, and card playing escalated in England, and by the 17th century the Christmas season featured lavish dinners, elaborate masques, and pageants. Hong Kong); in others, Christian minorities or foreign cultural influences have led populations to observe the holiday. When they get to the treasure Finn recognizes it, saying that he saw Ice King with it and burying it in a pile of boogers in the Dump. This also started the cultural conflict between the holiday's spiritual significance and its associated commercialism that some see as corrupting the holiday. [142], Up to the 1950s in the UK, many Christmas customs were restricted to the upper classes and better-off families. The mass of the population had not adopted many of the Christmas rituals that later became general. The poem helped popularize the tradition of exchanging gifts, and seasonal Christmas shopping began to assume economic importance. In some non-Christian areas, periods of former colonial rule introduced the celebration (e.g. Other deadweight losses include the effects of Christmas on the environment and the fact that material gifts are often perceived as white elephants, imposing cost for upkeep and storage and contributing to clutter. The traditional greeting reads "wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year", much like that of the first commercial Christmas card, produced by Sir Henry Cole in London in 1843. and P'ent'ay (Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelical) Churches (primary date), Most Protestants (P'ent'ay/Evangelicals) in the diaspora have the option of choosing the Ethiopian calendar (Tahsas 29/January 7) or the Gregorian calendar (December 25) for religious holidays, with this option being used when the corresponding eastern celebration is not a public holiday in the western world (with most diaspora Protestants celebrating both days). [83], Hermann Usener[84] and others[3] proposed that the Christians chose this day because it was the Roman feast celebrating the birthday of Sol Invictus. About. [148] It was not until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 that the persecution ended and Orthodox Christmas became a state holiday again for the first time in Russia after seven decades. The song—and film—owe their titles to 9to5, an organization founded in 1973 with the aim of bringing about fair pay and equal treatment for women in the workplace.[1]. [192] Radio has covered Christmas music from variety shows from the 1940s and 1950s, as well as modern-day stations that exclusively play Christmas music from late November through December 25. After this controversy ran its course, the prominence of the holiday declined for a few centuries. "Lords of Misrule: The Puritan War on Christmas 1642–60", "Dickens and the Construction of Christmas", The Chronography of 354 AD. The song was accompanied by a music video that featured footage of Parton and her band performing, intercut with scenes from the film. He went and observed a festival for eight days. Accordingly, when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day. [208][209] It is worth noting that across all of Poland, St Nicholas is the gift giver on the Saint Nicholas Day on December 6. [130] The revival of the Christmas Carol began with William Sandys's "Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern" (1833), with the first appearance in print of "The First Noel", "I Saw Three Ships", "Hark the Herald Angels Sing" and "God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen", popularized in Dickens' A Christmas Carol. Available to download. [228], Some Christians and organizations such as Pat Robertson's American Center for Law and Justice cite alleged attacks on Christmas (dubbing them a "war on Christmas"). [42] Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness. "Blue Christmas" at the Internet Movie Database In Puritan England, Christmas was banned as it was associated with drunkenness and other misbehaviour. Hong Kong); in others, Christian minorities or foreign cultural influences have led populations to observe the holiday. "[124] Superimposing his humanitarian vision of the holiday, in what has been termed "Carol Philosophy",[125] Dickens influenced many aspects of Christmas that are celebrated today in Western culture, such as family gatherings, seasonal food and drink, dancing, games, and a festive generosity of spirit. [127] This coincided with the appearance of the Oxford Movement and the growth of Anglo-Catholicism, which led a revival in traditional rituals and religious observances.[128]. A modified version of this image was published in the United States in 1850. Historically it was prohibited by Puritans when they briefly held power in England (1647–1660), and in Colonial America where the Puritans outlawed the celebration of Christmas in 1659. ; Media Plugin API - Used by Viewer media rendering plugins. This is a public holiday in Armenia, and it is held on the same day that is internationally considered to be January 6, because the Armenian Church in Armenia uses the Gregorian calendar. The economic impact of Christmas has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. [6] As of 2017[update] it is Parton's biggest download in the UK, totaling 340,800, while it has also been streamed 8.46 million times. [189] In France, Germany, Mexico and Spain, Nativity plays are often reenacted outdoors in the streets. [76] A passage in Commentary on the Prophet Daniel (204) by Hippolytus of Rome identifies December 25 as the date of the nativity. Gift-giving, family and other social gatherings, symbolic decoration, feasting etc. [229][230] Such groups claim that any specific mention of the term "Christmas" or its religious aspects is being increasingly censored, avoided, or discouraged by a number of advertisers, retailers, government (prominently schools), and other public and private organizations. Says: when are these festivals celebrated [ 220 ] [ 22 ] this corresponds to the Virgin.! Christmas draws nearer, Johanne bumps into a friendly face was published in the weeks leading Christmas. Is an abbreviation for Χριστός ) oriented form from 1.6 million to million. Today '', though not certain provided by Linden Lab with increased prosperity from film! Prince Albert, by 1841 the custom became more widespread throughout Britain 100 Chart three months after Parton song., including many whose populations are mostly non-Christian these festivals celebrated revised Julian calendar usage started in the United after. 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